‘Tattoo Electrodes’ – Conducting polymer tattoo electrodes in clinical electro- and magneto-encephalography

Conducting polymer tattoo electrodes have successfully demonstrated their performances in the monitoring of various electrophysiological signals on the skin. These epidermal electronic devices offer a conformal and imperceptible contact with the wearer while enabling good quality recordings over time.

Evaluations of brain activity in clinical practice face multiple limitations, where such electrodes can provide realistic technological solutions and increase diagnostics efficiency. Here we present the performance of inkjet-printed conducting polymer tattoo electrodes in clinical electroencephalography and their compatibility with magnetoencephalography.

Ultra-thin and light weight tattoo electrodes promise a revolution in the way scientists can monitor and be a brain-computer interface to help understand brain wave activity, long-term EEG measurements…

The tattoo electrodes are created using conductive polymers that can be printed through a standard inkjet printer

Tattoo electrode–skin contact impedance is characterized on short- (1 h) and long-term (48 h) and compared with standard pregelled and dry.

cutaneous sensors –

The cutaneous receptors’ are the types of sensory receptor found in the dermis or epidermis. They are a part of the somatosensory system. Cutaneous receptors include cutaneous mechanoreceptors, nociceptors (pain) and thermoreceptors (temperature).

The four sensory receptors on the skin are:

  • naked nerve endings (pain and temperature receptors)
  • Paccinian corpuscle (deep pressure receptors)
  • Meissner’s corpuscle (touch receptor)
  • Golgi tendon organ and muscle spindle (proprioceptor)

The working mechanism of these dry sensors is investigated through the modeling of the skin/electrode impedance for better understanding of the biosignals transduction at this interface. Furthermore, a custom-made skin phantom platform demonstrates the feasibility of high-density recordings, which are essential in localizing neuropathological activities. These evaluations provide valuable input for the successful application of these ultrathin electronic tattoos sensors in multimodal brain monitoring and diagnosis.


Laura M. Ferrari, Usein Ismailov, Jean-Michel Badier, Francesco Greco, Esma Ismailova